Research and reading that contributed to the documentary Spare the Rod.
Discipline Disparities and Zero Tolerance
Key Data Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in our Nation's Public Schools
2016, U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights
The Punishment Gap: School Suspension and Racial Disparities in Achievement
Edward W. Morris and Brea L. Perry
January, 2016. Social Problems 63: 68-86.
How School Suspensions Push Black Students Behind
February 2016, The Atlantic
The High Cost of Harsh Discipline and Its Disparate Impact
Russell W. Rumberger and Daniel J. Losen
June 2016, The Center for Civil Rights Remedies, UCLA
Seeding Change in School Discipline: The Move from Zero Tolerance to Support
Winter 2015-2016, American Educator, American Federation of Teachers
Disproportionate Impact of K-12 School Suspension and Expulsions on Black Students in Southern States
Edward J. Smith and Shaun R. Harper
2015, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education
Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline: Implicit Bias is Heavily Implicated
February 2014, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, The Ohio State University
A First Look: Key Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in Our Nation's Public Schools
2013-2014 Civil Rights Data Collection
2016, U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights
New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline
Russel J. Skiba, Mariella I. Arredondo and M. Karega Rausch
March 2014, The Discipline Disparities Research to Practice Collective
The Equity Project, Indiana University
Are Black Kids Worse? Myths and Facts about Racial Differences in Behavior
Russel J. Skiba and Natasha T. Williams
March 2014, The Equity Project at Indiana University
Out of School and Off Track: The Overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High Schools
Daniel Losen and Tia Elena Martinez
April 8 2013, The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at UCLA's Civil Rights Project
The History of Zero Tolerance in American Public Schooling
2011, Palgrave Studies in Urban Education
Breaking Schools' Rules: A Statewide Study on How School Discipline Relates to Students' Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement
Tony Fabelo, Michael D. Thompson, Martha Plotkin, Dottie Carmichael, Miner P. Marchbanks III, Eric A. Booth
July 2011, Council of State Governments Justice Center, Public Policy Research Institute
Patterns of Exclusionary Discipline by School Typology, Ethnicity, and Their Interaction
Amity Noltemeyer and Caven S. McLoughlin
Summer 2010, Perspectives on Urban Education: 27-40
Suspended Education: Urban Middle Schools in Crisis
Daniel J. Losen and Russel J. Skiba
September, 2010, Civil Rights Project, UCLA
Are Zero Tolerance Policies Effective in the Schools? An Evidentiary Review and Recommendations
American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force
December, 2008, American Psychologist 63.9: 852-862.
Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track
2005, Advancement Project, Padres y Jóvenes Unidos, Southwest Youth Collaborative, Children and Family Justice Center of Northwestern University School of Law
The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment
Russel J. Skiba, Robert S, Michael, Abra Carroll Nardo and Reece L. Peterson
2002. The Urban Review 34.4: 317-342.
Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School Disciplinary Practice
Russel J. Skiba and Kimberly Knesting
Winter 2001, New Directions for Youth Development 92: 17-43.
School Discipline at a Crossroads: From Zero Tolerance to Early Response
Russel J. Skiba and Reece L. Peterson
Exceptional Children 66.3 (Spring 2000): 335-347.
School Suspensions: Are They Helping Children?
September, 1975. Children's Defense Fund of the Washington Research Project, Inc.
Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools: A Research Review
Trevor Fronius, Hannah Persson, Sarah Guckenburg, Nancy Hurley, Anthony Petrosino
Keeping Kids in School: Restorative Justice, Punitive Discipline, and the School to Prison Pipeline
April, 2012 Journal of Law and Education 41.2: 281-335
Restoring Justice: Community Organizaing to Transform School Discipline Policies
Winter, 2011, UC Davis Journal of Juvenile Law and Policy 15.1: 1-36.
Colorado Disciplinary Practices 2008-2010: Disciplinary Actions, Student Behaviors, Race and Gender
Ryan Pfleger and Kathryn Wiley
April 2012, National Education Policy Center
Lessons in Racial Justice and Movement Building: Dismantling the School-to-Prison-Pipeline in Colorado and Nationally
Padres y Jovenes Unidos and Advancement Project